General Management I
This subject provides the fundamental quantitative skills necessary you need to extract information from data to make better managerial decisions. You will become familiar with the tools of quantitative analysis, develop the necessary skills for analytical thinking and gain a quantitative mindset to measure performance. The fundamental quantitative skills you gain from this subject will provide a foundation for advanced MBA subjects and an analytical framework for solving managerial problems throughout your career.
Financial Reporting and Analysis
Understanding and using financial accounting information is essential to your success as a professional manager. This subject provides you with foundation knowledge about for-profit entities’ external financial reporting – knowledge that is not only the basis for correctly interpreting and applying accounting information, provided for internal managerial decision-making, but also for financial statements, used to make externally?focused judgments and decisions (e.g., assessing a firm’s intrinsic value or its strengths and weaknesses, relative to competitors).
This subject provides the analytical skills and tools to identify, diagnose and solve people-related challenges in organisations. It examines different theoretical perspectives and concepts, underlying individual, group and organisational behaviour, and teaches you how to apply these concepts in a practical manner to improve performance.
Economics for Managers
This subject gives you economic-reasoning tools for developing and evaluating strategic business options and making better choices. You will discuss the fundamental concepts and develop analytical skills required in managerial and strategic decision?making.
General Management II
Develop the capability to lead individuals and teams through intrapersonal (self-awareness, self-management) and interpersonal (social awareness, social skill) development. This confidence-building subject includes theoretical and conceptual content alongside solo and group exercises, designed to prepare you for leadership experiences in the MBA program and your future career.
Social Responsibility and Ethics
Learn about the societal context in which business operates and develop the skills for reasoning about the ethical problems it generates. This intensive subject examines the various stakeholders of business and discusses the obligations that corporations have to them. It considers strategies for achieving corporate social responsibility goals and also examines a range of alternative approaches to moral reasoning.
This introduction to valuation and financial management is based on the principle that firms should be managed to increase the wealth of their shareholders, subject to fulfilling their contractual and legal obligations to other stakeholders. To this end, it focuses on valuing financial assets and selecting investment projects. It provides a solid foundation if you want to specialise in finance or study other finance electives later in your MBA.
The focus of this subject is the challenges that organisations face in managing demand and how to address them with optimal demand?side strategies. To be successful, organisations need to recognise, create, grow and protect market?based assets that influence demand. You will learn how (and which) marketing investments help develop market?based assets, how they translate into market outcomes, and how market outcomes help ensure an organisation’s long?term survival and success.
Process and Operations Management
In fiercely competitive global and dynamic environments, companies face increasing pressures to exceed customer expectations along multiple performance measures, such as cost, quality, flexibility and innovation. This subject deals with the design, management and continuous improvement of business processes, providing some of the core concepts that are essential for leveraging a firm’s operational capabilities to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. It takes a logical and rigorous approach to planning and controlling process structure and provides managerial levers for achieving the desired performance from a business process.
General Management III
During this intense, week?long subject, you are introduced to a number of exciting techniques and concepts, including individual creativity and brainstorming, team creativity, innovation within small and large firms, and linking ideas, generated in this subject, to your other subjects, including strategy, marketing and operations.
It is not a "theory" subject. It is hands?on and experiential, with a focus on a real project to help you acquire practical skills. We want you to learn how to think outside the box and be creative and inventive, whether you decide to become an entrepreneur or join an existing firm. Such skills are becoming more important to employers as industries face rapidly changing market conditions and innovative global competitors.
Corporate Financial Management
This subject provides advanced knowledge about financial management - knowledge that is the basis for funding a firm’s investments and using its resources efficiently, and useful for addressing risk management, capital investment in foreign markets and corporate payout policy.
This subject gives you foundation knowledge about the financial information that underlies managerial reports, used for internal planning, decision?making and performance evaluation. This knowledge is fundamental to making informed, value?creating, managerial decisions.
Global Business Economics
This subject examines the broad environment in which firms operate and explains factors that affect the output growth, inflation, unemployment, interest rates and exchange rates of a country in a globalised world. These economy?wide variables are beyond a firm’s control but critically influence their decision?making. The subject presents a macroeconomic framework to illustrate the dynamic interconnections among markets (such as financial assets, goods and services, labour, money) and government policies. With the aid of country case studies and current policy research, it demonstrates that economics is not primarily a set of answers but a method of reasoning.
This subject examines: a general manager’s primary roles and responsibilities in formulating business strategies and building and sustaining competitive advantage; the fundamental issues involved with integrating and coordinating the activities of different functional areas, such as marketing, operations management, accounting, human resource management and finance; and the frameworks and tools, commonly used to develop and assess business strategies.
Chartered accountancy is the core of all business, be it big or small. A chartered accountant’s work involves auditing, taxation, accounting and financial planning. It can be a very challenging and rewarding job.
Career prospects after doing chartered accountancy are exciting. Chartered accountancy can be the first step to other rewarding careers in finance, investment consultancy and fund management.
The Chartered Accountancy course is conducted by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, which has its headquarters in New Delhi, 5 regional offices (Calcutta, Kanpur, Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi) and 81 branches under these regional centres.
The qualifications for becoming a CA have changed over the years. Initially — and that was decades ago — one could think of becoming a CA only after finishing graduation and a candidate had to undergo five years of articleship training. In 1991-92, ICAI allowed candidates who had cleared their Plus Two examinations to appear for the Foundation Course of the CA programme. In October 2001, ICAI introduced PE-1 and PE-2 system of examinations in place of the Foundation and the Intermediate examinations. However, in 2006, ICAI revamped the system and launched CPT, IPCC and FC.
The unique feature of the chartered accountancy is its curriculum, which is theoretical education with complementary practical training. A student would undergo theoretical education and practical training concurrently from the very beginning. This balanced approach helps the students to appreciate the underlying practical applications of the theoretical education scheme.
Common Proficiency Test (CPT)
CPT is an entry level test of four subjects i.e. Accounting, Mercantile Laws, General Economics and Quantitative Aptitude.
Integrated Professional Competence Course (IPCC)
This is first stage of CA curriculum wherein only working knowledge of core and allied subjects to accountancy profession is covered. The subjects of IPCC are classified into two groups which a student can study and appear in the examination group-wise or both the groups together. IPCC is designed to improve knowledge of accountancy linked to accounting standards to build strong foundation for developing knowledge of financial reporting at the final stage. The students update their knowledge of business communication, business strategies, taxes, information technology and audit.
CA Final covers advanced application knowledge of core subjects like financial reporting, strategic financial management, advanced management accounting, advanced auditing and professional ethics and information systems control and audit. In addition, principles of e-governance, corporate and allied laws, international taxation and VAT are important features of the updated subject contents.
The students after passing Group I of IPCC will register for Articleship for a period of three years with experienced CAs. Certain rules do apply - CAs with 16 years of experience and above can take on about 8 articles, those with less experience can train fewer articles and these teachers or 'Principals' as they are called, can be changed during the course of training. An agreement of training needs to be executed before it begins. During the training time, articles learn the technical details of the work and as time passes, they are given larger assignments with less supervision. All articled clerks are paid a stipend depending on their city's population.
In today’s cut throat competitive world, it is advisable that a student starts planning right after class 10. For chartered accountancy, a student can register with the Board of Studies and prepare for entry level test while pursuing 10+2. It is better to take mathematics at this level. Students of commerce stream definitely have an advantage while pursuing this career. The latest scheme of CA is designed to encourage young talented students having aptitude for accounting education to make an early entry into the profession.
Is it the Right Career for Me?
It is generally believed that only students of commerce should pursue CA course. However, CA being a very practical course, the students from science and arts streams can equally benefit and make a successful career. Students of science and arts stream have to make extra efforts in order to understand some complex accounting nuances and have to get basic knowledge of various management topics. But it can be easily concluded that students of science and arts streams can be successful CAs, if they are ready to toil.
What would it Cost Me?
Unlike other professional courses, the fee for becoming a CA is very less, which is inclusive of the cost of study material. For registering with IPPC you have to shell out Rs 9000 while the fee for CPT is Rs 6700.
There is not much scope for any scholarships while pursuing chartered accountancy.
On completion of the training, the candidates need to gain membership to the ICAI before they can start practicing as a CA. A member wishing to practice in India or abroad needs to obtain a Certificate of Practice from the ICAI, the yearly fee of which is Rs. 400. Once the membership is taken, the practicing member cannot work in any other business or occupation without taking permission from the council; they are only permitted to work in areas as specified in the CA regulations. More information on enrolment or the examinations can be requested from the Institute's offices or the Headquarters at Indraprastha, New Delhi or the Board of Studies, C1 - Sector 1, Noida - 201301.
For CA Inter: Generally candidates holding CA inter-qualification are paid somewhere between Rs 7,500 and 15,000 depending on the type of firm. Payments can be higher for candidates possessing other qualifications such as MCom or an MBA. On the other hand starting salaries can be as little as Rs 4,500 to 5,000 in some small towns of the country.
For CA Final (FCA): Starting salaries range between Rs 12,000 to 30,000 depending on the type of firm and nature of the economy.
A full fledged CA can expect a salary between Rs 30,000 to 75,000 after serving a stint of more than 5 years at a top firm.
Demand and Supply
It can be easily concluded that the country needs about 7,500 to 10,000 fresh CAs every year seeing the growth of Indian economy in the last 5 years.
Chartered Accountants have been one of the most sought after professionals in India. Much of the reputation of CAs is due to the fact that their rigorous training (both theoretical and practical) makes them practically jack of all trades as far as the domain of finance is concerned. In spite of the sea change in global trade systems and practices, the requirement of CAs has remained steady.
The demand for CAs has been growing between 10% to 15% over the past 3 – 4 years. The demand however depends on the state of the economy and there is direct bearing on the demand of CAs when the economy is in downtrend. But the statutory clause for mandatory appointment of CAs provides substantial cushion support to the CA fraternity as compared to other comparable peers.
The qualification of CA is globally recognized hence industry outlook for CAs is bright indeed. Much recognition for CA degree is due to the fact that the CA course has been able to keep pace with changes in industry scenario. Several new modules and topics have not only been incorporated into the CA course but have been very effectively implemented to give increasing more power to the CA degree. In spite of the fact that several top-notch B-schools (including IIMs) have produced some of the most brilliant B-school grads, it is noteworthy that CAs has been able to retain their prominence in present world order.
The job is highly paying.
CAs command tremendous respect in the organisations and society.
It can be a stressful job as the responsibilities are enormous and there is no scope for any errors.
Regular update of knowledge is a must otherwise it may lead to stagnation in career.
Different Roles, Different Names
A Chartered Accountant’s work area has become so wide and involves so many activities that sometimes a CA is perceived as almost an enigma. A CA can start career with auditing activities, which is the basic work area of a CA. From here a more fulfilling career in finance can be pursed after getting enough exposure of intricacies of finance. As an investment consultant and as a fund manager a CA can play the role of a top decision maker. CAs also work in project management and consultancy services.
Following are the areas where CAs find an opportunity:
Banks (Both private and public)
Public Limited Companies (mandatory for the purpose of law)
Auditing Firms (such as KPMG, Price Waterhouse, etc.)
Finance Companies, Mutual Funds, Portfolio Management Companies, Investment Houses, Stock Broking Firms
Legal firms, Legal houses, Patent Firms, attorneys, Trade Mark and Copyright Registers
Tips for Getting Hired
Accounting is a precision oriented job. Pay attention to how you dress, speak and conduct yourself in company. These also add a personal charisma which helps in maintaining good relations with peers and clients.
You need to understand the business world. It is also important that you show this understanding. Start looking at the bigger picture in terms of company numbers. This business acumen is a prerequisite for a CA.
Leadership and analytical skills are vital to a chartered accountant. Besides these, work on your communication skills both oral and written.
Be prepared to work long and hard when needed especially in the taxation months.
Maintain high ethical standards.
How To Manage Study Time During MBBS First Year
Although every year matters, the first year in particular is very important to a student as it helps them figure out the teething problems in studying, introduces them to new technical terms, tests their fundamentals, what they studied in school, and enables in developing a strong understanding of the basics. This holds good for an MBBS course in particular. Thus, the first year could make you tiresome or even intimidate you because of the new subjects and concepts. Even though fearing this time is a natural instinct, your seniors have sailed the same boat you are in now and a clearer picture of the first year could help you plan your study timings.
What Are The Subjects In MBBS First Year Let us first take a look at the subjects that you will have to study in the first year. powered by Rubicon Project Although the reference books and some concepts could differ according to different colleges, the subjects for all will remain more or less the same. The following are the subjects for first year MBBS course: Anatomy Osteology Embryology Physiology Biochemistry
How Much Time Does Each MBBS Subject Take To Cover Everyday Ideally, an MBBS student must spend 6 hours a day for studying in the first year, to ace the tests. There are totally five subjects but the amount of time to be dedicated per subject depends on your proficiency or knowledge in each. If you are good at anatomy, spend one hour on that and focus on physiology for two hours. The attention span of a human being could be less. This means, you cannot take too long to study everyday and slog. So keep your preparation time crisp. Even though six hours is required, divide them accordingly, so that you are able to focus during your study hours.